Wednesday, April 19, 2017

3 Strategies to Teach Text Dependent Analysis (TDA)



Looking closely at the Common Core Standards, there is a big emphasis on text evidence.  For example, fourth grade Common Core State Standard- CCSS RI 4.1 states, "Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text."  To take a step further, the standards require students to dig deeper to analyze the text.   In fourth grade CCSS RI.4.8, it states, "Explain how the author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text."

Digging deeper into the text, finding evidence, and analyzing the author's intentions, can be quite challenging for elementary students.  Here are a few strategies to help your students analyze text effectively:

1.  TEXT DEPENDENT ANALYSIS QUESTIONS
Use a list of Text Dependent Analysis Questions not only when you are creating prompts for your students, but also for student reference.  Review the questions with your students to get them familiar with the types of prompts they will be expected to analyze.  They are no longer expected to simply answer who, what, where questions.  Now they need to explain the author's purpose, the author's writing style or structure, or how they know an answer to more complex questions within the text.  Knowing the types of questions will help your students when reading any text.  They will be thinking deeper knowing that there are hidden meanings and evidence to uncover.  CLICK HERE for a free list of over 60 questions.  Print them and place them in a writing center or in a student resource notebook.


2.  ACE
ACE is an acronym used in Text Evidence.  When your students learn a simple acronym, it will help them answer text dependent analysis questions effectively.

A- Answer the question-  Restate the question and infer by using prior knowledge and reading between the lines.

C-  Cite evidence by finding proof in the text.  Highlight it for easy reference.

E-  Explain your answer by paraphrasing and using quotes from the text.

For more information on ACE, read this TEXT EVIDENCE blog post.


3.  SENTENCE STARTERS
Help students learn how to start evidence-based sentences.  It will guide them to effectively provide text evidence.  Start a class discussion by brainstorming sentence starters.  Use the following examples to get them started.  Make a copy of the list and place it in your writing center.  Students should take notes and keep them in a student resource notebook.  It will provide them with a wonderful reference when they are writing a text dependent analysis.

On page _____, it states...
In paragraph _____, the text says...
_____ quoted, "..."
The example ... shows that ...
According to the text, ...
From what I read in _____ of the text, I understand ...
Based on _____ in the text, I think...
I think the author means _____ because he/she says ...
The author's purpose for this text is ...

For more information on teaching TDA, read this Text Dependent Analysis blogpost.

I hope you gained some strategies to implement in your classroom today!


If you are looking for Text Dependent Analysis passages and prompts, click below!



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